文章摘要
从综合到分化:日本农政范式转换对农民收入的影响
From Comprehensive to Specialized: the Impact of Paradigm Shift of Japan’s Agricultural Policy on Peasants’ Income
投稿时间:2023-07-06  修订日期:2023-11-07
DOI:
中文关键词: 综合农政  分化农政  范式转换  农民收入
英文关键词: Comprehensive Agricultural Policy  Specialized Agricultural Policy  Paradigm shift  Peasants’ income
基金项目:国家社科基金重大项目“东亚乡村振兴的社会政策比较研究”(课题号为18ZDA119)
作者单位地址
李全鹏 吉林大学 吉林省长春市前进大街2699号
江世君* 名古屋大学 
摘要点击次数: 622
全文下载次数: 0
中文摘要:
      任何处于现代化进程中的国家均要面对产业发展不平衡的难题,即如何筑高处于现代产业体系洼地中农业及农民收入的问题。作为中国现代化的参考系,日本农村亦曾在战后一度陷于贫困窘境,但在短短二十年后,日本农民收入基本可以向城市居民看齐。究其原因,日本《农业基本法》(1961)构建了“综合农政”体系,围绕实现农民收入增长这一核心目标制定了关于农村开发、农业保护、农民收入托底等全方位政策。但是,对农业与农民收入的大力保护也导致了农业生产僵化,农村活力低下等负面效应。为此,基于《粮食·农业·农村基本法》(1999)的“分化农政”降低了农业补助,突出了农产品多元化、市场化、精细化的导向性,以应对农产品市场化与商品化等新形势。日本农政范式转换为东亚社会的农政转型带来了丰富的历史经验:战后的综合农政体系筑高了农民增收的各项基础条件,也奠定了“贫而不穷”这一政策基调和社会价值观念。与之相对,在新自由主义兴起、粮农领域全球化的时代背景下,分化农政阶段的地域活力政策在支撑农产品竞争力、推动农产业自立发展等方面更具效果。
英文摘要:
      Any country in the process of modernization has to face the problem of unbalanced industrial development, that is, how to raise the status of agriculture and peasants in the modern industrial system. As a reference for China’s rural modernization, Japan’s rural areas were also once in poverty after WWII. However, after two decades, the income of Japanese peasants was generally consistent with that of urban residents. As for the reasons, Japan’s Basic Law for Agriculture (1961) established a system of “Comprehensive Agricultural Policy”, and formulated a full range of policies on rural development, agricultural protection, and income support around the core objective of ensuring the bottom line of peasants’ income, which means protecting agriculture with the power of the state. However, the strong protection of agriculture and peasants’ income has also led to the problem of decreased rural vitality. In recent years, the global competition for agriculture and food has intensified, forcing the Japanese rural areas and peasants to be more active in coping with the new trends, such as the marketization and commercialization of agricultural products. Under such circumstances, the “Specialized Agricultural Policy” system, based on the Basic Law for Food, Agriculture, and Rural Affairs (1999), reduced agricultural subsidies and emphasized the aim of specialization, marketization, and refinement of agricultural products. Such a paradigm shift in Japan’s agricultural policy has brought valuable experience to the transformation of agricultural policy in East Asia. The Comprehensive Agricultural Policy System built up the foundations for peasants to increase their incomes, as well as the social value of being “hard-up” rather than “poverty-stricken”. In contrast, in the context of rising neo-liberalism and the globalization of the food and agriculture sectors, the specialized agricultural policy system proved to be more effective in supporting the competitiveness of agricultural products.
View Fulltext   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器