文章摘要
农时视角下近代以来中国乡村劳动力的就业演变
Employment Evolution of Rural Labor Force in Modern China from the Perspective of Farming Season
投稿时间:2022-05-19  修订日期:2022-07-04
DOI:
中文关键词: 农时  乡村劳动力 工业化  就业
英文关键词: Farming Season  Rural Labor  Full Employment  Industrialization
基金项目:
作者单位邮编
陈奕山 中山大学华南农村研究中心 510275
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中文摘要:
      农业生产具有明显的季节性特征,中国生产者一贯注重结合农时安排生产就业,在农业国工业化过程中,乡村劳动力争取实现更充分就业的条件和方式不断发生演变。以农时为视角,可贯通性地考察和理解近代以来中国乡村劳动力的就业演变:传统乡村劳动力通过在大田农闲期从事家庭小工商业以争取实现更充分就业;近代外来工业产品输入所造成的冲击导致部分乡村劳动力无法有效利用农闲期从事家庭手工业生产,被迫进城寻找就业机会;新中国成立后一段时期中乡村劳动力被严格限制在大田生产中,无法有效利用农闲期从事非农生产;改革开放以来城市地区非农就业机会扩大,大量乡村劳动力主动进城就业、减少大田农闲和农忙期的农业劳动时间投入,部分乡村劳动力则扩大了劳动密集型农产品生产;未来随着乡村人口的代际更替,从事稳定非农就业将是大多数乡村劳动力的就业要求。
英文摘要:
      The pattern of China rural labor employment is continuing evolve during the process of industrialization. Taking account of farming season factor, this article inspects the evolution routine of China rural labor employment since early modern times. Labor time input in agricultural production fluctuates over time, in order to increase the efficiency of time using, traditional Chinese rural labor devoted their time to off-farm household manual work in slack season. However, the large number of imported cheap products from industrialized countries in the early modern times imposed a negative effect on the full employment of rural labor. After the founding of new China, rural labors were strictly restricted in agriculture production in a certain period, which impaired the efficiency of their time using. Current “labor transfer” is the continuing of the old par-time work tradition to some extent, for rural labor devotes much more time to off-farm work while reducing time devoting to farm work. In the coming years, rural labor born after 1980 strongly prefer formal city off-farm work, they satisfy neither with manual work nor with low wage work. Therefore, policy guarantee should be provided in developing larger formal technical off-farm work space for the settlement of rural young labor.
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