文章摘要
北洋政府时期的农村与农民(1912~1927)————以战乱和灾荒为研究视角
Rural Areas and Peasants in the Period of Beiyang Government (1912 ~1927) —— from the Perspective of War and Famine
投稿时间:2018-11-22  修订日期:2019-05-14
DOI:
中文关键词: 北洋政府时期  农村  农民  军阀  中国共产党
英文关键词: the period of Beiyang Government  the Countryside  the Farmers  the Warlords  the Communist Party of China
基金项目:本文系河南大学“中国近现代国家治理”创新团队项目(2019CXTD003)的阶段性成果
作者单位E-mail
贺怀锴 华中师范大学 中国近代史研究所 湖北 武汉 430079 hehuaikai1990@163.com 
冯巧霞 河南大学 历史文化学院 河南 开封 475000  
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中文摘要:
      北洋政府时期,军阀为维护统治,满足其军费开支,过度剥削农民,田赋杂税猛如虎。由于军阀的割据战争和泛滥的匪患,中国农村俨如一个兵匪的王国。加之该时期天灾不断,而预防、救济皆不到位,农村遍地灾荒、连年灾荒。天灾人祸相交,致使北洋政府时期农村经济普遍衰落,农民命悬一线。知识分子、国民党等尝试提出了各自振兴农村的方案和策略,但都以失败而告终。直到中国共产党诞生后,提出土地革命政策,才寻找到了一条真正能解放农村的新道路,农村社会才迎来了发展的新时机。
英文摘要:
      In the period of Beiyang Government, the warlords excessively exploited the peasants to meet the military expenditure. The feudal land tax was as fierce as a tiger. Faced with warlord divisions and numbers of banditry, China's countrysides were almost the realms of bandits. In addition to the continuous natural disasters, the prevention and relief were also not in place. Disasters happened everywhere year after year. Frequent natural disasters and man-made disasters caused the decline of rural economy and the farmers’ unprotected lives. Intellectuals and Kuomintang tried to put forward their own strategies for rural revitalization, but all of them failed. Until the Communist Party of China were born and they put forward the Agrarian Revolution policy, China found a new way to liberate the countryside, and the rural society obtained a new opportunity for development.
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