文章摘要
农村宅基地产权法律表达的70 年变迁(1949—2019)
The Development of Property Right of Rural Homestead in the Past 70 Years (1949—2019)
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 宅基地  财产权  居住权  历史变迁
英文关键词: The rural homestead  Property right  Right of housing  Historical development
基金项目:
作者单位
胡 震 ,中国农业大学人文与发展学院 
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中文摘要:
      受苏联宪法影响,1954 年《中华人民共和国宪法》首次引入“生活资料/ 生产资料”概念。 在法律层面上,农民房屋从公民私有财产被改造为生活资料。 1962 年的《农村人民公社工作条例(修正草案)》则把性质上属于生活资料的农村宅基地归入生产资料,变成了集体所有、农民使用。 通过房屋“生活资料化”和宅基地“生产资料化”,农民原先的宅基地所有权被弱化为一个事实上的居住权。 改革开放以来,在立法上恢复了房屋的财产本质,确认并通过改革不断实现宅基地使用权的用益物权性质。 宅基地的财产属性逐渐得到恢复。 70 年宅基地产权法律表达变迁的历史说明,应在坚持集体所有前提下不断推进宅基地财产化,赋予农民更多财产性权利,这是真正实现乡村振兴的必由之路。
英文摘要:
      Under the influence of the Constitution of the Soviet Union, the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China introduced the concept of Means of subsistence and Means of production for the first time in 1954. In the legislation, farmers’ houses are transformed from citizens’ private property to means of subsistence. The 1962 Regulations on the Work of Rural People’s Commune (Amendment draft) classify rural homestead into means of production, and thus it is collectively owned and used by farmers. Through the collectivization of movement, farmers’ ownership of homestead is weakened into a de facto right of housing. Since the Reform and Opening, the nature of the property of the house has been recognized in legislation, and the nature of usufruct of the right to use the homestead has been confirmed and realized through the rural reform. The property attribute of the homestead has been gradually restored. The history of homestead in the past 70 years shows that the property of homestead should be continuously promoted under the premise of insisting on collective ownership, and farmers should be given more property rights, which is the only way to realize the revitalization of the countryside.
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