文章摘要
中国农民市场机会 70 年:回顾与反思
The Change of Chinese Peasants' Market Opportunities since 1949:Review and Reflection
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 市场机会  机会平等  政治约束  个体能力与资源约束  乡村振兴
英文关键词: Market opportunities  Equality of opportunity  Political constraints  Personal ability and resource constraints  Rural revitalization
基金项目:2019 年度教育部人文社科青年基金项目“共生理论视阈下农村就业创业服务体系优化研究”(19YJCZH196)。
作者单位
谢秋山 湘潭大学公共管理学院 
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中文摘要:
      系统梳理新中国成立以来国家农村发展战略的实践可以发现,由国家政治约束所决定的农民市场机会多寡和由农民个体能力与资源约束所决定的农民市场机会可自主利用程度是制约农业农村发展和农民收入增长的关键性因素。 从农民市场机会利用角度看,新中国成立 70 年来,农民的市场机会经历了“市场机会关闭”“市场机会自发识别与普遍利用”和“市场机会难以识别与精英利用”等三个阶段。 未来适应推进乡村振兴之需要,应通过政策调整和公共服务供给侧改革创新引导农业农村发展走向“市场机会创造与促进普遍与有效利用并重”阶段,致力于让更多的农民有效地利用市场机会。
英文摘要:
      Through systematically analyzing the successes and failures of previous rural development strategies, the article finds that the number of peasants’ market opportunities are determined by the political constraints imposed by state, and the degree of spontaneously utilizing market opportunities of peasants are decided by their personal ability and resource constraints. From the perspective of peasants' market opportunities usage process, the market opportunities of Chinese peasants have gone through three phases, namely be closed stage, be easily recognized and widespread utilization stage, and be difficult to be recognized and elite utilization stage. Through policy adjustment and supply side reform of public services, the Party and government should lead rural development to the stage of considering both creating market opportunities and promoting opportunities be universally and effectively utilized at the same time, especially focusing on letting peasants effectively utilize market opportunities as much as possible in order to boost rural revitalization.
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