文章摘要
“因改善而消亡冶:标准化建设与农村小规模学校生存困境———基于县域义务教育均衡政策的实践案例
Improved Out of existence:School Standardization and the Crisis of Small Rural Schools———Based on the Practice of Balanced Development of County-level Compulsory Education Policy
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 标准化建设  均衡发展  学校布局调整  教育生态
英文关键词: School standardization  Balanced development  School consolidation  Educational ecology
基金项目:本文系杭州市哲学社会科学规划课题“西部农村的贫困治理问题研究” (编号:2018RCZX04)和杭州师范大学科研启动项目“连片特困地区公共服务供给模式与贫困治理机制及路径研究” (编号:4035C5021720436)的阶段性研究成果。
作者单位
单丽卿 杭州师范大学公共管理学院 
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中文摘要:
      在推进县域义务教育均衡发展的背景下,农村学校的办学条件不断改善,但是与此相伴随的却是村级学校数量的持续减少。 文章试图对这种“因改善而消亡冶的现象做出解释,通过对中央政策和县域实践的考察,揭示教育均衡政策与农村小规模学校生存困境之间的关联。 在县域的政策实践中,标准化建设成为推动义务教育均衡发展的主要路径,自上而下的考核压力强化了县级政府在政策执行中的“目标替代冶,产生了政策扭曲,其结果是村级学校的局部改善与整体边缘化,在客观上加剧了农村小规模学校的生存危机。 文章对教育发展政策中的“硬件偏好冶与“投入导向冶作出反思,引入教育生态的概念,强调树立整体性的政策观,以重建教育生态为核心政策目标,推动农村小规模学校整体发展环境的实质性改善。
英文摘要:
      With the implementation of balanced development of county-level compulsory education policy, the facility of rural schools has been rapidly improved, however the number of rural schools decreased continually. This paper focused on the phenomenon of “improved out of existence”, is trying to examine the relationship between balanced development policy and the crisis of small rural schools. In the policy practice of county-level, school standardization became the main approach towards balanced development. However, the top-down pressure resulted in “ goal displacement”, which distorted the original policy objective. As a result, rural schools only experienced partial improvement, but as a whole, they were in a more marginalized position. Policy makers should reflect on “facility preference” and “input-oriented” policy, by introducing the concept of educational ecology, it is argued that rural educational policy should aim at the reconstruction of rural educational ecology, and promote the substantial improvement of small rural schools.
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