文章摘要
主粮政策调整与环境变迁研究——以中国南方桄榔类物种盛衰为例
On the Adjustment of Ancient Staple Crops Policy and Ecological Environment Changes ——Case Study of the Rise and Fall of Guanglang Palms (Sago-Type Palms)in the Southern Areas of China
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 主粮政策  环境变迁  物种盛衰  桄榔  董棕
英文关键词: The staple crops policy  Ecological environment changes  The rise and fall of species  Guanglang palms  Caryota
基金项目:国家社科基金重大招标课题“西南少数民族传统生态文化的文献采辑、研究与利用”(项目编号:16ZDA157;16ZDA156)
作者单位
耿中耀 吉首大学历史与文化学院 
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中文摘要:
      在中国汉文典籍中,“桄榔”一词的指代对象包括棕榈科的桄榔(Arenga)、鱼尾葵(Caryota)和糖棕(Borassus)等众多属的多种植物。该类植物在中国南方的早期农业实践中发挥着重要作用,被当地各族先民作为重要的粮食作物进行栽培和利用。随着“大一统”多民族国家建立,历代朝廷在颁布和执行主粮税收政策的过程中,因没有将该类作物及相关民族文化纳入国家的管理体系,从而致使该类作物的利用范围经历了由盛转衰的递变。当代,桄榔类植物已基本失去了其作为粮食作物利用的价值,某些物种(如鱼尾葵属的董棕)的活态传承更是到了命悬一线之境地。立足于此,综合政策实施、主粮消费和环境变迁等要素,对桄榔类物种展开全面讨论,回顾其盛衰的历史过程,总结经验与教训,发掘当代的经济价值与生态价值,当有一定的理论与现实意义。
英文摘要:
      The word “Guanglang”, which refers to Arenga, Borassus and Caryota of Palmae plants, originated from Chinese Classics. These plants mainly distributed in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the south areas of Yangtze River in China. With the establishment of a “unified” multi-ethnic state, the governments of successive dynasties failed to include such crops and related ethnic cultures into the national management system in the process of promulgation and implementation of tax policies on staple grains, thus resulting in the gradual change of the utilization scope of such crops from prosperity to decline. Contemporary, “Guanglang” plants has been largely lost its value as a food crop and utilization, some species (such as Caryotaurens Linn) live transmission but also to the position of the line. Based on this, the comprehensive factors such as policy, staple food consumption and environmental changes, a comprehensive discussion of Guanglang palms, reviewing its ups and downs of the historical process, sum up experience and lessons, explore contemporary economic value and ecological value, when there is a certain theoretical and practical significance.
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