文章摘要
坎儿井功能衰退:干旱区人水关系的演变
The Functional Decline of Karez: Evolution of Human-Water Relationship in Arid Areas
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 坎儿井  功能  干旱地区  人水关系  可持续发展
英文关键词: Karez  Function  Arid areas  Human-water relationship  Sustainable development
基金项目:陕西师范大学科研启动项目“东疆地区坎儿井系统工程衰退的社会学研究”(100056/1110010930)
作者单位
冯 燕 陕西师范大学哲学与政府管理学院 
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中文摘要:
      坎儿井是新疆干旱地区利用水资源最为经济、有效的水利工程,对绿洲农业的发展起着重要作用。 用水文化、生产用水制度、生活用水规范和用水组织,维护了坎儿井的正常运行和用水秩序,人水关系处于平衡状态。 而机井因缺乏综合规划配置,布局不合理,又过度开采地下水,导致坎儿井水量不断减少甚至干涸。 村民用水负担增加,村庄社会交往空间改变,甚至举家向有水地方迁移。 自来水取代坎儿井饮用水源的高级功能,彻底割裂了坎儿井与村民的亲密关系,人们遂转向使用它纳污的低级功能,人水之间的平衡关系被打破。 人们关于坎儿井的用水规范、价值观念发生改变,维护工作懈怠,人水关系陷入恶性循环。 新疆绿洲农业面临“资源性冶缺水和“功能性冶缺水的双重风险,重建和谐的人水关系,寻找可持续发展的道路,是亟待解决的理论和现实问题。
英文摘要:
      Karez was the most economical and effective water conservancy project in arid area of Xinjiang, which played an important role in development of oasis agriculture. At the same time, the local villagers established the culture, institution, norm and organization to maintain the normal operation for water use and balance the relationship between people and water. After the entry of modern water conservancy technology, due to the lack of comprehensive planning and allocation, unreasonable distribution, and over-exploitation of groundwater, the volume of water in karez had been reduced or even depleted. As the increased demand for water, the social communication space has changed, and even many families moved to the place with water. Tap water replaced karez to be the advanced function of drinking water source, which completely disrupted the intimate relationship between karez and villagers, and broke the balance between people and water. Oasis agriculture in Xinjiang encounters the dual risks of “resource冶 and “functional” water shortage. It was a theoretical and practical problem to be solved urgently to rebuild the harmonious human-water relationship and to find the way of sustainable development.
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