文章摘要
农业跑步机理论:研究述评与中国实践
Reviews of “Theory of the Agricultural Treadmill” and Practice of Chinese Villages
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 农业技术变迁  农业跑步机理论  农民分化  中国实践
英文关键词: Changes of agricultural technology  Theory of the agricultural treadmill  The farmer social stratum differentiation  Chinese practice
基金项目:国家社科基金重大项目“农业社会学的基本理论与前沿问题研究” (17ZDA113)、国家社会科学基金一般项目“农业社会学的理论框架与核心议题研究”(17BSH002)
作者单位
高雪莲 中国农业大学人文与发展学院 
李阳阳 中国农业大学人文与发展学院 
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中文摘要:
      农业跑步机理论指出,由于“农业跑步机冶的存在,农业生产越来越集中在少数大农场主手中,农场更加商业化和资本化,农业结构也发生了根本变化,农村剩余人口大量流失,农民阶层逐渐分化。 20 世纪后半叶美国农业的发展经历了从农产品价格的“农业跑步机”到“土地跑步机”的转变。 后继者既有对理论的经验验证,认为政策、种子、化肥等同样存在“跑步机冶陷阱;也有理论批判,提出农业跑步机理论难以解释小家庭农业和兼业农民的生产状况。 文章在对农业跑步机理论进行综述的基础上,利用该理论对河北定州市大西丈村的经验材料进行了分析和解释。
英文摘要:
      Willard Cochrane, a professor of the university of Minnesota, proposed “ theory of the agricultural treadmill” based on his research of the process and results of farm technology adoption by American farmers in the 1950s. Cochrane pointed out that the existence of “agricultural treadmill” had led to the increasing concentration of agricultural production on a small number of farmers, meanwhile, more commercialized and capitalized farms had fundamentally changed the agricultural structure of the United States. Furthermore, rural surplus population moved into city, and the farmer social stratum differentiation appeared. Cochrane argued that the process of American agriculture in the second half of the 20th century had undergone a transition from the “agricultural treadmill” to the “ land treadmill” of agricultural prices. Some scholars had empirically verified and theoretically criticized the theory, and believed that other elements like policies, seeds, fertilizers had “treadmill” traps too. It is difficult to explain small family agriculture and the production status of concurrent farmers by using the “theory of the agricultural treadmill”. Basing on the reviews of the “ theory of the agricultural tread-mill”, we analyzed and explained the empirical data of Daxizhang village in Dingzhou city Hebei province in this paper.
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