文章摘要
农业技术变迁与农业转型:占取主义/替代主义理论述评
The Change of Biotechnology and Agrarian Transformation:Review of the Appropriationism / Substitutionism Theory
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 技术变迁  农业转型  占取主义  替代主义  农业社会学
英文关键词: Biotechnological change  Agrarian transformation  Appropriationism  Substitutionism
基金项目:国家社科基金重大项目“农业社会学的基本理论与前沿问题研究”(17ZDA113);国家社科基金青年项目“新型农业经营主体的村庄社会基础研究”(17CSH071)
作者单位
陈义媛 中国农业大学人文与发展学院 
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中文摘要:
      《从农耕到生物技术:关于农业产业化的发展理论》一书从政治经济学角度讨论了技术变迁与农业资本化的关系,提出了占取主义/替代主义的理论框架,强调了由于自然条件的限制,资本无法在农业中建立一个超越家庭之外的更优生产模式,小规模家庭农业因此得以继续存在,但技术的进步,使工业资本可以不断加强对农业领域的渗透和控制。该理论对于理解中国农业转型具有启发意义,农业的资本化并不一定伴随着土地流转和规模化,资本可以通过对农业不同环节的改造、重组,从农业中占取剩余,形成资本积累。此外,国内农业社会学领域的研究发现,家庭农业的存续得益于“家庭“这一生产组织的独特优势,即家庭的村庄社会基础,这也构成对该书的重要拓展。
英文摘要:
      This paper has reviewed the book ‘From farming to biotechnology: A theory of agro-industrial development’, and re-examined the theory in Chinese context. This book explores the agrarian question by looking into the progress of biotechnology, and theories the ‘ appropriationism/substitutionism’ framework. The authors emphasize that due to the con straints of ‘nature’, capital fails to organize a superior production system to undermine the competitive advantage of house-hold production, which could explain the survival of family farming. Nonetheless, agro-capital is still able to strengthen its control and penetration to agriculture. This theoretical framework is illuminating for understanding China’s agrarian change. The agrarian capitalization could take place without large-scale land transfer. Rather, by undermining discrete elements of the agricultural production process or the food processing process, agro-capital could appropriate agricultural surplus. However, China’s agrarian transformation has gone beyond this framework, which needs to be further examined.
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