文章摘要
大清场:中国的圈地运动及其与英国的比较
Great Clearances: The Chinese Version of Enclosure Movement
投稿时间:2015-03-03  修订日期:2015-03-03
DOI:
中文关键词: 中国乡村  大清场  圈地运动  中英比较
英文关键词: Chinese villages  Great clearances  Enclosure movement  Comparison between China and Britain
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
张玉林 南京大学社会学系教授 yulinzhang@nju.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      1990年代以来席卷中国的征地拆迁浪潮,实质上是一场史无前例的大清场运动。从开发区建设到城市的扩张,从“撤村并居”到“土地整理”,都以消灭农村、驱逐小农为归结:迄今已经吞噬了8300多万亩耕地、清除了至少140万个自然村和1亿2700多万小农。这场运动尚未结束,但是就已知的结果来看,它很快就达到了“英国的一切剥夺方法的顶点”,比英国的圈地运动更为暴烈和迅猛。而从推动大清场的综合动力来看,它不同于“农业革命”的技术需求,也超越了“原始积累”的初始需要,包含着由极端的发展主义催生的“贱农主义”和城市信仰,因此也表现为又一场文化意义上的“大革命”。这场革命不仅使中国社会充满了暴戾之气,也具有显著的反自然的特征。
英文摘要:
      The wave of land requisition and housing demolition having been sweeping China since 1990s is an unprecedented clearance movement in essence. No matter what form it presents, ranging from the planning of development zones construction and urban expansion to the policies of “withdrawing villages and combining residences” and “land consolidation”, it always ends with eliminating villages and expelling peasants: So far, more than 83 million mu arable land has been devoured and at least 1.4 million natural villages and over 127 million peasants have been swept away. However, the clearance movement is not over yet. On the contrary, if seen from the manifestation, it soon caught the situation where Karl Marx described as “all the English methods hitherto considered culminated in ‘clearing’”, and has surpassed British enclosure movement to be more fierce and violent with recklessness. And if viewed from its integrated driving force which not only differs from the technical demand in “agricultural revolution” times but also is beyond the original need of “primitive accumulation”, the clearances actually turn out to be another “great revolution” in culture with the stimulation of anti-pastoralism and city belief emerged under the ideology of extreme developmentalism. This clearing revolution not only makes Chinese society full of ruthlessness and tyranny, but also features conspicuous anti-nature.
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