文章摘要
因言何以获罪? ———“谋大逆”与清代文字狱研究
A Punishment for the Speech?——“Regicide” and Literary Inquisition in Qing Dynasty
投稿时间:2013-09-21  
DOI:
中文关键词: 谋大逆  文字狱  十恶  谋反  大不敬
英文关键词: Regicide  literary inquisition  Shi’e  treason  great disrespect to Emperor
基金项目:本研究系教育部人文社科基金项目“中央集权下的省级地方立法研究”(09YJC820110)和中国农业大学中央高校基本科研业务费项目“清代户部则例研究”(2013QJ015)的研究成果。
作者单位
胡震 法学博士、中国农业大学法律系副教授邮编:100083。 
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中文摘要:
      文字狱是专制社会的产物。那么,因言何以获罪?获何罪?如何处刑?本文认为,中国古代文字狱的定罪处刑经历了一个逐渐发展的过程。隋唐之前,对文字狱的处罚,罪名不一;“十恶”定型之后,主要以“大不敬”处罚;明清时期,由于“大不敬”条文的变化,使得“谋大逆”取代“大不敬”成为处罚文字狱最主要的罪名。通过对 “谋大逆”的发展源流、内涵等的仔细辨析,我们发现,恰恰是“谋大逆”在内涵和外延上的不确定性极大方便了统治者在文字狱认定及其处罚上的任意所为。最后,在具体案件的处理中,清代文字狱也并非全部是按照“谋大逆”定罪处刑,而是形成了一个以“谋大逆”为首的罪名群,为了加强治理效果,也往往会使用杖毙等法外之刑。
英文摘要:
      Abstract The literary inquisition is a product of the authoritarian society. Why a punishment for the speech happened? What kind of punishment? And how? The author considered the conviction and punishment of Chinese ancient literary inquisition were getting perfection gradually. Right before Sui and Tang Dynasties, punishment for literary inquisition had different accusations. After Shi’e was setting up, the great disrespect to emperor was the main accusation. In Ming and Qing Dynasties, principles’ changes of the accusation above, the treason appeared. Through exploring the history and meaning of treason, the author found it was the uncertainty of great disrespect to emperor greatly facilitates the arbitrary act made by ruler. Finally, the author discussed the crimes and punishments in the specific cases of literary inquisition in Qing Dynasty.
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